Hi everyone, welcome to english-learning.net. I hope you are well today. In this lesson, we’re going to learn a variety of ways to include other things in a list.
1. Et cetera (etc.)
The most common way, used in both formal and informal situations, is “et cetera”. “Et cetera” is a expression in Latin which means “and other things”. It is used to indicate other items are included in the list For example:
- In our center, I can borrow books, listen to music, talk to native speakers, et cetera.
- There are so many animals in the zoo, like lions, crocodiles, monkeys, snakes, et cetera.
2. And stuff like that
In this expression, “stuff” is a general word for “things” or “items”. Use this at the end to tell people that the list contains other similar things. This is considered an informal way to end a list. For example:
- You could buy a lot of things on Amazon, cell phone, computer, washing machine, camera, and stuff like that.
3. And so on
This expression basically means “and similar things”. For example:
- Our hotel offers free breakfast with bread, fruit salads, bacon, omelette and so on.
- You should try to avoid unhealthy food-hamburger, French fries, fried chicken and so on
4. And so forth
This is the similar formula to “ and so on”, it basically means “and other such things”. For example:
- Global warming could cause extreme natural disasters like flood, drought, earthquake, tsunami and so forth.
5. And the list goes on
This expression tells people the list still continues, there are still other things. For example:
- There are so many beautiful cities in Asia you should visit: Tokyo, Bangkok, Beijing and the list goes on.
6. And such
This expression is short for “ and other such things”. If you are tired of “et cetera” and “so on”, go ahead and use “ and such” after your list. For example:
- Mary is really talented, her writing is excellent. She could write great essays, short stories, magazine articles and such.
7. And the like
This phrase has the same function as the above, it tells people the list keeps going with the similar things. For example:
- We can easily earn money from social networks, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and the like.
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